The basis of the choice of milling cutter
1. The nature of the material being cut:
Wood cutting objects are solid wood and wood composites. Solid wood can be divided into soft materials, hard materials and modified woods, etc. Wood composite materials include veneer lumber, plywood, particle board, oriented strand board, large particle board, gypsum particle board, cement particle board, hard fiber board, medium density Fiberboard, high density fiberboard, blockboard, plastic composite materials, etc. Some wood or wood composite parts have to be treated with single-sided or double-sided veneer.
2. Cutting direction:
During wood cutting, wood cutting is divided into longitudinal, transverse, end-to-end, longitudinal end-to-end, longitudinal and transverse directions, and transverse end cutting according to the orientation of the blade with respect to the wood fibers.
3. Tool rotation direction and feed direction:
According to the rotation direction of the machine tool axis and the direction of the feed of the wood workpiece, the direction of the inclination of the blade on the tool is determined.
4. Tool and workpiece stability:
The stability of the cutting tool and the workpiece in the cutting process includes several aspects. The stability of the workpiece refers to the fact that the wood workpiece is smoothly fed without any beating during the cutting process. The measures taken to enhance the stability of the workpiece mainly include lowering the center of gravity of the workpiece and increasing the contact area.
5. Processing surface quality requirements:
The surface quality of the wood workpiece includes the surface roughness, geometry, and positional accuracy of the shape.
The selection of woodworking cutters
1. Determine the main technical parameters of the milling cutter:
Tool outer diameter, processing thickness, center hole Other technical parameters: number of teeth, direction of rotation, speed of rotation, feed rate, clamping method, tool tooth material.
2. Select the structure of the milling cutter:
According to the nature and requirements of the cutting object, the overall milling cutter, the welding integral cutter, the assembly milling cutter and the combined milling cutter are selected from the technical and economic aspects.
3 milling cutter rotation direction selection:
The direction of rotation of the milling cutter is determined according to the direction of rotation of the spindle of the processing machine and the relative position of the tool axis and the feed workpiece. Whether it is an integral milling cutter or an assembled milling cutter, the inclination of the cutting edge relative to the radius of the milling cutter determines the rotation of the milling cutter. direction.
4. Selection of milling cutter cutting amount:
The cutting amount of the milling cutter includes the cutting speed of the milling cutter, the feed rate of the workpiece and the milling depth. The cutting speed of the cutter depends on the cutter speed and the radius of the cutter. The feed rate of the workpiece depends on the quality requirements of the cutting surface. The surface roughness of the workpiece to be cut largely depends on the amount of feed per tooth of the cutter during cutting. The feed per tooth is too large, the machining surface is too rough, the feed per tooth is too small, and the machining surface will burn. The phenomenon of coke, therefore, the feed per tooth of the cutter must be appropriate.
5 milling cutter operation stability:
The stability of the milling cutter is the basis for ensuring the machining accuracy and the quality of the machined surface. This includes two aspects: one is that milling cutters generate vibrations due to external forces during cutting; the other is that milling cutters deform under the action of external forces.
6. Milling tool safety:
The safety of milling cutters includes the limitation of the milling cutter's turning speed, the limitation of the thickness of the chip, the limitation of the profile height of the forming cutter and the limitation of the thickness and the extension of the milling cutter blade.
Wood cutting is characterized by high-speed cutting. The milling cutter's rotation speed is more than 3000 rpm. High-speed cutting brings about high productivity and smooth surface quality brought by wood cutting. At the same time, it also brings a series of safety issues, so when the spindle speed of a milling machine tool reaches 9000 rpm, except for the shank milling cutter with a tool less than 16 mm, the use of an assembled milling cutter should be prohibited, and the weld of the integral milling cutter is also to be welded. Conduct strict inspections. The chip thickness limit is a necessary measure to ensure that the cutter feed is too large and the cutter is heavily overloaded.
For forming cutters, the height profile contour profile has a close relationship with the milling cutter gripping method, the thickness of the cutting workpiece, and the diameter of the milling cutter. After the thickness of the machined workpiece, the diameter of the cutter, and the center hole are determined, the profile height of the cutter reflects the strength and rigidity of the cutter itself, and the ability to withstand the cutting resistance. Therefore, the profile height must be limited to ensure the safety of the milling cutter. In the design of an assembled milling cutter body, it is necessary to consider the clamping problem of the blade. Whether it is a cylindrical body or a disk body, the blade holding mode must ensure that a sufficient clamping force can be provided to resist the centrifugal force
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